Green Coding and IT Energy Consumption: Strategies for Energy-Efficient Software

Green coding series Part 2.
You can find part 1 here.

In the first instalment of our Green Coding series, we delved into the critical issue of IT energy consumption and why it’s a concern that should weigh on every developer’s mind. We explored the vast energy demands of our digital world, the concepts of carbon footprint and handprint, and the trends within the IT industry that are contributing to this energy consumption.

Today, we’re going to take a deeper dive into the three main areas of energy consumption in modern software development and explore strategies for reducing this impact.

The Energy Consumption of Data Centres and Cloud Services

Modern software relies heavily on data centres and cloud services, which host the centralised business logic and data storage. These facilities play a critical role in the energy consumption of software. Here are some strategies to reduce energy consumption in this area:

  • Server optimisation: To minimise energy usage, it’s essential to maximise the efficiency of servers. This can be achieved by consolidating applications onto fewer servers, virtualisation, and the use of container technology. Balancing server loads is crucial to ensure optimal performance without overloading servers.

  • Cloud service selection: When choosing cloud services, consider providers that use energy-efficient data centres and offer renewable energy options. Publicly available consumption information can help you make informed decisions.

  • Data centre location: The physical location of data centres can affect energy consumption due to differences in energy sources. Opt for data centres that use renewable energy and are situated in regions with cleaner electricity grids.

Data Transmission Paths

Data transfer between data centres and end-user devices can significantly impact energy consumption. While you may not have direct control over the entire transmission path, there are steps you can take to reduce energy use:

  • Minimise data transfer: Reduce the amount of data transferred between data centres and devices. Optimise code to minimise unnecessary data requests and transmissions.

  • Choose efficient paths: Encourage users to use energy-efficient network connections, such as Wi-Fi instead of mobile data. Users can have a significant impact on energy consumption through their choice of network.

  • Use Content Delivery Networks (CDNs): Implement CDNs to shorten the data transmission path and reduce energy consumption. CDNs help deliver content more efficiently, especially for global services.

End-User Devices

The software running on end-user devices can have a significant impact on energy consumption. Here are some strategies to consider:

  • Efficient code: Develop efficient code that minimises the need for processing on the end-user device. This reduces energy consumption and prolongs battery life.

  • Resolution optimisation: For applications that involve media consumption (e.g., streaming), automatically adjust the resolution based on the device’s capabilities. This reduces both data transfer and energy consumption.

  • Cache management: Manage caches effectively to reduce data transfer. Keep frequently used data locally to minimise the need for repeated downloads.

  • Display settings: Encourage users to adjust their device’s display settings for energy efficiency. Lower brightness and darker screens consume less energy, especially for OLED displays.

  • Device lifespan: Promote longer device lifespans to reduce emissions associated with manufacturing and disposal. Optimise your software for backward compatibility to extend the usefulness of older devices.


Reducing the energy consumption of software development is a shared responsibility that involves developers, cloud service providers, and end-users. By taking steps to optimise code, select energy-efficient services, and encourage eco-friendly user practices, we can collectively reduce the environmental impact of the IT industry.

Remember, while individual efforts are essential, systemic changes within the industry are also crucial. As awareness of green coding and energy-efficient software development grows, we can hope to see more stringent standards and requirements for environmentally friendly software in the future.

In our upcoming blog post, we will continue our exploration of software efficiency, focusing on three crucial aspects: architecture, algorithms, and users. We will delve into the significance of optimising software to reduce redundancy and waste, discuss the importance of aligning architecture with evolving needs, and shed light on how user interfaces can either contribute to or mitigate energy inefficiencies.

Thoughts by

Janne Kalliola

Chief Growth Officer


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